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Offline red

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EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« on: September 07, 2007, 09:37:16 AM »
EHD is discovered in Southern Ohio Cattle and Deer - William P. Shulaw DVM, MS, Extension Veterinarian, Cattle/Sheep, The Ohio State University

Perhaps some of you have seen the recent press release from the Ohio Department of Agriculture concerning a recent outbreak of epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) in Pike county. This disease is usually seen in white-tailed deer where it is sometimes referred to as hemorrhagic disease, and outbreaks are relatively common in the southeastern United States. Ohio had its first confirmed outbreak of this disease in deer in 2002, primarily in Meigs, Gallia, and Vinton counties, and again in 2003 in Brown and Clermont counties. In August of 2007, EHD was reported in Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Green and Washington counties in Pennsylvania. The disease is often fatal in white-tailed deer, but deer may become infected and show no signs at all. The virus that causes the disease is closely related to the bluetongue virus (BT), which causes a very similar disease in deer, and blood feeding gnats, or midges, of the Culicoides genus spread both viruses in nature. These viruses are not contagious from animal-to-animal, and humans are not affected by them. Deer that recover from these viruses are safe for people to consume.

The rather unique feature of EHD in this latest Ohio outbreak is that the virus has affected at least two cattle herds. The primary signs observed have been excessive salivation or drooling, cloudy nasal discharge, moderate to severe lameness, poor appetite, and a severe drop in milk production in the dairy herd. Examination of affected animals in these herds has revealed mild hemorrhages in the tissues of the mouth in most animals with erosions and ulcer formation in some. In addition, the lame animals have one or more feet that are somewhat swollen and painful to the touch in the area of the coronary band (top edge of the hoof) especially at the heel. Both beef and dairy cattle are affected, and both cows and calves are affected in each herd. EHD virus infection has been suspected in a small number of additional herds in the area, but this has not yet been confirmed. Preliminary tests for EHD have been positive for some of these animals, and additional testing is being carried out to further characterize the virus and the extent of the infection in the herds. Of the 10 different serotypes of EHD virus known worldwide, only two have been reported in the USA. Testing is also being done on several dead deer found in the area, and reports as of today indicated that significant numbers of deer have died.

Like bluetongue virus, the virus of EHD does not usually cause clinical disease in cattle, but it can. Indiana reported clinical EHD in cattle in 1996. Early reports indicate that at least two other states currently experiencing EHD outbreaks have seen disease in cattle herds. Unlike bluetongue virus, EHD virus does not appear to cause clinical disease in sheep, although it can infect this species as well. A small flock of sheep is present on one of the Ohio farms, but the animals are showing no signs of disease at this time. It is too early to predict what will be observed this year in Ohio, but it is possible that a number of cattle herds will become infected. Experience with these viruses (BT and EHD) in previous outbreaks and in other countries suggests that the number of animals that show signs in an infected herd may be as few as 5-10%. Cattle with signs of EHD usually recover within two to three weeks. Affected dairy cows may not return to their previous level of milk production until the next lactation.

Although most EHD infections in cattle are mild or go completely unnoticed, the virus can affect the developing calf in a pregnant animal. The most critical period for the fetus is between 70 and 120 days of gestation. Loss of the developing fetus or developmental deformities may occur if it is infected during this period. Producers who suspect the disease in their herd or area may wish to consult with their veterinarian to consider the best plan for detecting possible pregnancy loss this fall. Bluetongue virus can cause temporary sterility in bulls, especially following an episode of clinical disease. At this time, we have no information on this possibility with EHD infection.

There is no successful treatment for EHD virus infections in cattle. Supportive treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and supplemental feed may be helpful in affected animals showing severe lameness or those that go off feed. Animals recovering from the infection may harbor the virus in their blood for several weeks which aids in the continued transmission of the virus. However, the biting midges that spread the virus will cease activity after the first killing frost and transmission will stop. No vaccine for EHD is currently available. In areas where there is good information that EHD is occurring, usually apparent by deer losses, producers may wish to step up their fly control efforts to help repel the midges until frost occurs in their area.

This is a developing situation, and the State Veterinarian's office is receiving reports of dead and dying deer from some other parts of the state outside the area initially discovered in Pike/Highland counties. If you believe that you may have cattle affected by EHD virus, contact your veterinarian or the State Veterinarian's office. You may find pictures of some affected cows on our website at: http://www.vet.ohio-state.edu/1985.htm. A good additional resource from the USDA on EHD and BT in livestock and deer can be found at: http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/gray_book02/fad/blt.php

The USDA in Ohio would like to be notified of ALL cases of disease resembling the description of EHD in the above article. This would include all species of domestic livestock or captive deer. The telephone number for the USDA office in Pickerington is (614) 856-4735 and the number for the State Veterinarian's office in Reynoldsburg is (614) 728-6220.




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Offline DL

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #1 on: September 07, 2007, 04:37:20 PM »
Very interesting - as most of you know the TB issue in MI is the result of infected wild white tailed deer- it raises a whole host of interesting social, medical, political etc issues when trying to eradicate a zoonotic disease from domestic livestock that traces back to wild animals.
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Offline Show Heifer

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #2 on: September 07, 2007, 08:18:04 PM »
In Iowa, the DNR "own" the deer during hunting season, but not when they cause an auto accident.....I wonder since the DNR is controlling the population (or they claim they are - not doing a very good job here in Iowa) can and will they be held accountable if something like this happens in Iowa???? ??? >:(
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Offline DL

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #3 on: September 07, 2007, 10:15:17 PM »
In Iowa, the DNR "own" the deer during hunting season, but not when they cause an auto accident.....I wonder since the DNR is controlling the population (or they claim they are - not doing a very good job here in Iowa) can and will they be held accountable if something like this happens in Iowa???? ??? >:(

Oh boy is this a sticky wicket - in northern MI the hunt clubs have a huge amount of political clout and the deer TB problem is centered around the hunt club area - although feeding and baiting is illegal (ie deer congregate and spread disease and delightfully the TB bug can live on feed so cattle can pick it up from feed) they figure the fine cost into the annual fee of the club (cost of doing business  ;D) - DNR in MI manages the populations - ie by issuing permits, tracking disease prevalence etc another problem is there are fewer hunters statewide and the hunters in the northern area think the population decrease is excessive while the epidemiologists say it probably needs to go down a bit more .....ah politics :( :(
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Offline red

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #4 on: September 09, 2007, 09:07:16 AM »
to me it's rather scary whenever something new is discovered in your area.
Looking at the large population of deer here & all over not surprised we'd have the problem.
Red
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Offline JbarL

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #5 on: September 09, 2007, 12:37:55 PM »
thanks guys...thats right in my back yard...how bout you sjc?  any scuttle around albany?....not many hunt camps ( at least 8 years ago when i left) aorund my part of the county...only one i know of is in meigs co..(longbottom)..?  thanks for the info folks...jbarl

Offline Zach

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #6 on: September 09, 2007, 12:44:51 PM »
southern ohio  :(
The livestock (show) industry is a tough one- if you've never had anything worth a damn you might as well go on the internet and rundown everybody you can.

Offline JbarL

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #7 on: September 10, 2007, 09:44:46 AM »
called the usda this morning........southern ohio is of concern as well as other parts of the state, and surronding states as well.....new herd discoveries this weekend in ohio as well....recent weather (heat) conditions seems to mask similar symtoms...as well as pracipitate the ehd virus as well....unusual amount of cattle afffected this year, sepecially in the southern parts of ohio.......thanks for the heads up red.............jbarl

Offline red

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #8 on: September 10, 2007, 11:05:00 AM »
I think anytime we as a group can share information, it benefits all. Thank you for your follow-up too!

Red
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Offline DL

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #9 on: September 10, 2007, 12:50:02 PM »
There are some rally good pictures in the link of reds post - worth your while to look at them if you live in the area - what are the feds/state doing? just monitoring? are they quarantining cattle premises? Most unpleasant...
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Offline JbarL

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #10 on: September 10, 2007, 10:45:20 PM »
she didnt seem to "worried" about it...jsut that getting into the cattle was rare.....says all the ingredients come to gether with the heat, and "grazing habits" the deer aquire in the southern ohio area....ie  lots of corn fields/some baited type grazing scenieros that gather them all together and feed in large consitent groups and spred/share the virus in large volume groups...kinda reminded me of a bunch of 5th graders all passin' around the snots for about 5 weeks  :D   but something to keep an eye on anyway...symtoms also resemble some heat related problems here of late in the area as well.....recommened blood test to verify...but only necessary if symtomatic... not necessarly a "herd" type problem either if i understood correctly....some may contract it...but not necessarly all.....the main concern seems to be its "occasional" visit to the cattle population....observe/treat if necessary/report/and monitor.....thanks again all jbarl

Offline justme

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #11 on: September 12, 2007, 10:18:28 AM »
Is this similar to the brain wasting disease?  I know the DNR took glads out of the deer at check in for several years here in Missouri for it.
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Offline CJB

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #12 on: September 12, 2007, 12:12:55 PM »
JBarL - Who did you contact at USDA?  Do you think they would pinpoint it down to a closer location rather than just Pike county?
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Offline DL

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #13 on: September 12, 2007, 12:31:04 PM »
Is this similar to the brain wasting disease?  I know the DNR took glads out of the deer at check in for several years here in Missouri for it.

justme - if you are talking about "chronic wasting disease" - it is believed that that is caused by a prion - an bizzare kinda of protein on the rampage - prions cause bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, "mad cow") as we as scrapie in sheep (which has a genetic component or susceptibility) - the human prion diseases are Jakob Cruetzfeld (aka Cruetzfeld Jakob) disease and Kuru (seen in the Fore tribe of Papua New Guinea and believed to be related to the practice of eating human brains). The CJ variant is what was attributed to consumption of beef with BSE in Britian - the nonvairant disease is usually seen in elderly people

EHD is a viral disease transmitted by an insect - hope that helps...

so they are caused by different things and transmitted in different wasy -
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Offline CJB

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Re: EHD discovered in southern Ohio- special notice
« Reply #14 on: September 12, 2007, 12:35:39 PM »
Saw this on a local media outlet today...


More Deer Virus Found

Highland County has been added to the growing list where white-tail deer virus is being found.
Wednesday, September 12, 2007
State wildlife officials have confirmed a localized outbreak of a common white-tailed deer virus in southeastern Highland Countys Brush Creek Township. Suspect cases have been reported in the southeastern Ohio counties of Athens, Hocking, Pike, Washington, Muskingum, Perry, Morgan, Gallia, Monroe, Ross, Belmont and Jackson.

Ohio Department of Agriculture's Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory in Reynoldsburg confirmed the deer had epizootic hemorrhagic disease. State animal health officials stress EHD occurs annually in deer herds across North America and is not related to Chronic Wasting Disease. White-tailed deer contract EHD from the bite of gnats, which live near water. The onset of cold weather suppresses the disease as frosts drive the gnats into winter inactivity.

The disease is not spread from deer to deer or from deer to humans. Once infected, deer show symptoms within five to 10 days. Infected deer initially lose appetite and fear of man, grow progressively weaker, often salivate excessively, and become unconscious. Many deer die within 36 hours of the onset of symptoms.
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