carcass quality review

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knabe

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i'm not advocating any one system, but here are two "indepdendent" reviews of the various products and techniques that are out there


jas.fass.org/cgi/reprint/jas.2006-512v1.pdf    is a direct pdf download

journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=686396        is also a direct download link

 

knabe

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ok, i don't expect anyone to read these, but here's some interesting points.  i'll review more later.

genes called heat shock genes may have a deleterious effect on tenderness of significant measure.  probably brought on by adrenalin, general stress, and yes temperature.  have the cows pray to yoga before slaughter

carboyhdrate conversion to fat and not interrupting this process, ie backgrounding may have an impact on earliness to lay down different kinds of fat.  some research has indicated this may not be the case, or at least a tolerable low level.  onset and rate of fat depostion, once interrupted, have a lag to reinitiate, is this wasted feed?

different muscle types may have a response to feeding systems, ie grass vs feedlot, a role of selenium may even play a role. muscle type including anaerobic or aerobic percentage may also play a role.

nutrition in the womb, particularly the last 3 months of gestation, and development of muscle fibers, to me meaning that it would be interesting to test time of year calving with available feed quality by adjusting 3 months both ways, no not in the dead of winter in some places.

amount and distribution of muscle type may be important for quality and may account for the phenotypic differences in high star bulls and may require "rethinking" what a carcass bull looks like, and may have an effect on fertility.  slight modifications "containing" double muscling expression may account for more muscle mass.

double muscling was also discussed and it's regulation is near on chromosome 5 where the tenderness genes are.

a gene was discussed which may have an extreme negative impact on tenderness, but needs more study, particularly in different backgrounds DNAJA1.  some genes are overexpressed, others underexpressed in high tenderness carcasses that are not the one's tested for.  their epxression was not noted in some breeds, meaning different backgrounds, and therefore different genes, or perhaps different regulatory areas may need to be tested for in different breeds.  determinism of tenderness may be different for different breeds.

14 days hanging may be a minimum to hang for tendernss gene cattle for maximum benefit, otherwise it's just a waste of time.

the cross deployment of markers across the most breeds may account for different strategies of these genomic companies.  it would be a pity to over select for markers that were corrolated, but not causal with carcass quality.  a typical limitation on human analysis in just about everything.  we love corrolation, but causality is somehow always viewed as prejudice.


 

Okie Boy

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Aug 1, 2007
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Waynoka Oklahoma
Greetings Knabe, I was startled and pleased to see your post about the high dollar farm. I am an Avard / Waynoka boy myself and went to school with the one not in jail. Just thought I'd speak up, its good to know that someone knows about our part of the world, even if you do live in Ca.
 

knabe

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hey okie boy, have you been to the cemetary in alva and seen the super old tombstones that are trees?  my grandmother helped make the cherokee strip museum, got a plaque up for the last indian battle, helped write the book about woods county, lots of stuff.  here's a pic of some "secret" catfish and a wagon covered with stones where 10 kids were raised and a pic of the old homestead, where knabe came from (tombstone), some small butts on a guys ranch my stepmom's brother herds for where they trade bulls every year instead of buying them, and a depot i'm sure you know.  i know lot's of people can't understand oklahoma, but i kinda like it.  the one scratching her head in the home pic is my wife saying, he built this house, you used to hang a carcass onthe north porch, he used to feed gypsies and outlaws, man, this is a tough life.
 

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knabe

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sorry, here's the depot okie boy, i'm sure you are aware there are a few clubby people around alva.  lot's of land for sale too. is the area just north north east of alva really that good of hunting ground for deer or head east of stillwater where there's more mineral?
 

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knabe

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2nd paper review compares bovigen system vs ingenity

the two panels share the two same calpain dna modification, called a snp,(single nucleotide polymorphism, a G or a C)

each has a snp in the calpastatin gene, but at different locations, the bovigen location appears to be in the 3' untranslated region, ie the part that doesn't get translated into a protein, while the ingenity is a snp in the exonic (within the region that gets translated into a gene).

i hadn't known that before.  interesting, that a non translated portion of a gene in the downstream region after the gene is made can have a measurable and reproducible effect.  that doesn't mean it isn't regulated there in it's expression.  most classical models have the regulatory region upstream.

the quality grade markers 1 and 2 from bovigen.  1 is a snp in the binding sequence for RNA polymerase III upstream from the first exon of thyroglobulin, meaning it potentially affects it's up or down regulation.  whether it's up or down, i couldn't determine.

feed, harvest date and management conditions were held the same.

some combinations of alleles were rare,  0.5%

one quality grade marker was almost fixed in the hereford group

one quality grade marker was associated with a higher number of carcasses grading choice or prime, but is not associated with higher marbling.  that is counterintuitive to me and i don't understand what that means.

the tenderness markers seem unrefutable, but require muscle decay post mortem

TG5 is present in most waygu cattle and seems to have the highest effect on marbling.  it is intermediate in presence in bos taurus and least present in bos indicus.

the T1 gene from bovigen seems to have little effect in indicus cattle suggesting a muscle composition difference?

the tenderness from the genes is greater than the tenderness between different qualtiy grades such as between select and low choice and is even greater the higher up the quality scale you go.

i kinda lost track of all the allele combinations but will summarize that later.  this paper has lots of tables which take time to deciper.  the numbers are slightly different between the two companies, but seem close.  probably have to look this over over the weekend to make sense of all the combinations.  interesting to note that herefords have a high prevalence of one of the tenderness genes.  in general, in my experience in college, they were harder to marble than other breeds, but if one measures the steaks with shear force before distributing that product to a higher priced market segment, a more favorable experience is realized, in spite of the marbling, which some customers may not want.  this is what safeway does with it's rancher's reserve product, which i have sampled vs grass fed beef products and find the safeway product much more enjoyable than the grass fed product, which can be extremely tough sometimes in spite of careful cooking with lower temperatures.  in general, i find the taste of the grass fed product better, but most people i have cooked for don't and they are also the same one's who don't like venison, elk etc.
 

ELBEE

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Blue Rapids, Kansas
Knabe, thanks for all the tech. info.!

Now the Cowboy logic!

1. Disposition and tenderness are synonymous.

2. Tenderness and marbling are NOT synonymous.

3. Keep the double muscled ones to put in your own freezer, cause they are buy far the best eating. The buyers won't give you anything for them anyway.

4. Put those babies on feed right off the cow, and harvest at 11-13 months at #600-#750 carcass weight. Any other program is a waste of time and resources.

5. If you don't have these genetics, get them.
 

TJ

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Thanks for posting this, knabe.  I've been busy & I haven't had time to fully digest this, but it looks like some interesting info. 

Thanks Again!!
TJ
 

knabe

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went to butcher to spec out the one steer for slaughter.  butcher had some interesting comments about ageing. 

moister in the drying room contributes to mold.  old timers used to have sawdust on floor to soak it up so they could age carcasses longer without the mold growing.

ageing is a function of moisture content in the carcass and if they carcass if quartered or just halved.  obviously if they are graded, they are cut at the 12th and 13th rib.  how the moisture comes out will determine how long the carcass hangs, and is influenced by fat cover.  butcher can definately tell with his knife how tender the carcass is by experience.  more age = more tender to a point.  he said tenderness is related to marbling, but from what i've read, this correlation is not well understood.  in other words, with the same genes, will a select carcass have the same tenderness as a high choice carcass with both aged to their "appropriatness".

the more you allow mold to grow, the more you waste.

oldtimers supposedly used cheesecloth to wrap some portions to make getting rid of mold easier.

had to sign a special form about BSE if i wanted to leave the bone in on the shoulder"butt" roast due to closeness to the spine.  form stated not from downer cow, what kind of feed, where it was from, contact info and a few other things i can't remember.
 
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