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Breeding soundness examination of Chianina, Marchigiana, and Romagnola yearling bulls in performance tests over a 10-year period.
Sylla L, Stradaioli G, Borgami S, Monaci M.
Theriogenology. 2007 May;67(8):1351-8. Epub 2007 Mar 21
Department of Pathology, Diagnostic and Veterinary Clinics, University of Perugia, Via San Costanzo 4, 06126 Perugia, Italy.
The objectives of the present study were (i) to establish the mean value of scrotal circumference (SC), sperm motility, concentration and morphology at 13+/-1 months of age for Chianina, Marchigiana, and Romagnola breeds and (ii) to assign Italian beef bulls at the end of a growth performance test to a potential breeder category by applying the guidelines of the Society for Theriogenology in 1993 (SFT93). Of 1,315 bulls, 869 were not given the breeding soundness examination for the following reasons: not passing the growth performance test (n=445), no training for semen collection (n=404), and presence of genital abnormalities (n=20). Testicular length and diameter and SC exhibited a logarithmic trend over time, with an R(2) value of 0.963, 0.979, and 0.978 (P<0.001), respectively. The SC of Romagnola (33.82+/-2.47 cm) was higher than those of Chianina (33.28+/-2.65 cm, P<0.001) and Marchigiana (33.05+/-2.20 cm, P<0.001). Sperm concentration in Romagnola (875.89+/-416.13x10(6)cells/mL) was higher than those in Chianina (751.63+/-444.45 x 10(6)cells/mL, P<0.05) and Marchigiana (862.57+/-421.87 x 10(6) cells/mL). Progressive sperm motility was 61.30+/-11.24%, 62.18+/-11.17%, and 58.48+/-14.40% in Romagnola, Marchigiana, and Chianina, respectively. Total spermatozoal abnormalities were higher in Chianina (23.35+/-15.41%). Sperm concentration was positively related to testicular length (P<0.01), diameter (P<0.001), and SC (P<0.001). Satisfactory breeders presented high sperm motility compared with deferred and unsatisfactory ones, whereas unsatisfactory breeders had a higher number of abnormal spermatozoa. By applying the SFT93 guidelines, we showed that 74.72%, 78.01%, and 80.16% of Chianina, Marchigiana, and Romagnola bulls, respectively, have been classified as satisfactory potential breeders.
Phenotypic relationships of scrotal circumference to frame size and body weight in performance-tested bulls.
Schramm RD, Osborne PI, Thayne WV, Wagner WR, Inskeep EK.
Theriogenology. 1989 Mar;31(3):495-504
Division of Animal and Veterinary Sciences West Virginia University Morgantown, WV 26506-6108 USA.
The objective of this study was to determine if frame size (height) is related to scrotal circumference. A total of 695 bulls (425 Angus, 65 Hereford, 70 Charolais, 135 Simmentals) were tested for postweaning gain in five stations over a period of 1 to 3 years. Variables examined included hip height, weight and scrotal circumference at beginning and completion of a 140-d feeding period. Correlations among these traits, adjusted for age (7 to 10 months at entry), year, station and management were estimated for each breed. Both height and weight were correlated positively with scrotal circumference at the start and the end of the test period in all four breeds. When height and scrotal circumference were adjusted for weight, correlations were negligible, with the exception of end-of-test values for Charolais bulls (-0.26). Negative correlations were obtained between the scrotal circumference at the start of the test and the change in height during the test after adjustment for weight in Angus bulls (-0.18) and in Charolais bulls (-0.15). These small negative phenotypic relationships indicate that a bull's fertility is not seriously reduced by large frame size at the completion of a feedlot performance test. For maximum fertility in bulls, scrotal circumference needs to be evaluated independently of frame size.